2,3-Pentanedione

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Catalog Number : CS-DK-00055
CAS Number : 600-14-6
Status :
Category : Fine Chemicals
Industry : Flavours and Fragrances, Flavors and fragrances
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Canonical SMILES : CCC(=O)C(=O)C
Isomeric SMILES : CCC(=O)C(=O)C
InChI : InChI=1S/C5H8O2/c1-3-5(7)4(2)6/h3H2,1-2H3
InchIKey : TZMFJUDUGYTVRY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
IUPAC Name : pentane-2,3-dione
Exact Mass : 100.052429494
Color : Yellow liquid
Odor : Somewhat sweet odor similar to quinone ... Detection: 20 ppb. Aroma characteristics at 1.0%: buttery diacytl-like, fermented dairy and creamy, popcorn buttery
Melting Point : -52 °C
Boiling Point : 108.0 °C
Solubility : In water, 6.67X10+4 at 15 °C
Density : 0.979-0.985
Chemical Classes : Other Classes -> Aliphatic Ketones, Other
Use Classification : Food additives -> Flavoring Agents
Consumer Uses : Air care products
Hazard Class : Flam. Liq. 2 (99.94%)
Description : Pentane-2,3-dione is an alpha-diketone that is pentane substituted at the 2- and 3-positions by oxo groups. It has a role as a flavouring agent. It is an alpha-diketone and a methyl ketone. It derives from a hydride of a pentane.
Disposal Methods : SRP: Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in air, soil or water; effects on animal, aquatic and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations. If it is possible or reasonable use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational harm/injury/toxicity or environmental contamination.
EC Number : 209-984-8
Vapor Pressure : 21.4 [mmHg]
Toxicity Summary : IDENTIFICATION AND USE: 2,3-Pentanedione is a yellow liquid. It is used as flavoring agent (butter flavoring) including many e-cigarette brands. HUMAN EXPOSURE AND TOXICITY: Inhalation of butter flavoring by workers in the microwave popcorn industry may result in "popcorn workers' lung." Cultured human bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBEs) were exposed for 6 hours to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione vapors (25 or >/= 60 ppm) and the effects on short circuit current and transepithelial resistance (Rt) were measured. Immediately after exposure to 25 ppm both flavorings reduced Na+ transport, without affecting Cl- transport or Na+,K+-pump activity. Concentrations (100-360 ppm) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione reported to give rise in vivo to epithelial damage, and 60 ppm, caused death of NHBEs 0 hours post-exposure. The results indicate that ion transport is inhibited transiently in airway epithelial cells by lower concentrations of the flavorings than those that result in morphological changes of the cells in vivo or in vitro. ANIMAL STUDIES: Rats that inhaled air, 2,3-pentanedione (112, 241, 318, or 354 ppm) for 6 hours were sacrificed the following day. Rats inhaling 2,3-pentanedione developed necrotizing rhinitis, tracheitis, and bronchitis. To investigate delayed toxicity, additional rats inhaled 318 (range, 317.9-318.9) ppm 2,3-pentanedione for 6 hours and were sacrificed 0 to 2, 12 to 14, or 18 to 20 hours after exposure. Respiratory epithelial injury in the upper nose involved both apoptosis and necrosis, which progressed through 12 to 14 hours after exposure. Olfactory neuroepithelial injury included loss of olfactory neurons that showed reduced expression of the 2,3-pentanedione-metabolizing enzyme, dicarbonyl/L-xylulose reductase, relative to sustentacular cells. Caspase 3 activation occasionally involved olfactory nerve bundles that synapse in the olfactory bulb (OB). An additional group of rats inhaling 270 ppm 2,3-pentanedione for 6 hours 41 minutes showed increased expression of IL-6 and nitric oxide synthase-2 and decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A in the OB, striatum, hippocampus, and cerebellum using real-time PCR. Claudin-1 expression increased in the OB and striatum. In other experiment, male and female rats and mice were exposed to 0, 50, 100, or 200 ppm 2,3-pentanedione 6 hr/d, 5 d/wk for up to 2 weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected after 1, 3, 5, and 10 exposures, and histopathology was evaluated after 12 exposures. MCP-1, MCP-3, CRP, FGF-9, fibrinogen, and OSM were increased 2- to 9-fold in BALF of rats exposed for 5 and 10 days to 200 ppm. In mice, only fibrinogen was increased after 5 exposures to 200 ppm. The epithelium lining the respiratory tract was the site of toxicity in all mice and rats exposed to 200 ppm. Significantly, 2,3-pentanedione also caused both intraluminal and intramural fibrotic airway lesions in rats. In third experiment, rats exposed to 150 or 200 ppm 2,3-pentanedione developed bronchial fibrosis. In mice, 2,3-pentanedione was not a dermal irritant when tested at concentrations up to 50%. However, concentration-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed following exposure to 2,3-pentanedione in mice.
Antidoteand Emergency Treatment : /SRP:/ Immediate First Aid: Ensure that adequate decontamination has been carried out. If patient is not breathing, start artificial respiration, preferably with a demand-valve resuscitator, bag-valve-mask device, or pocket mask, as trained. Perform CPR if necessary. Immediately flush contaminated eyes with gently flowing water. Do not induce vomiting. If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain an open airway and prevent aspiration. Keep patient quiet and maintain normal body temperature. Obtain medical attention.
Human Toxicity Excerpts : /ALTERNATIVE and IN VITRO TESTS/ Inhalation of butter flavoring by workers in the microwave popcorn industry may result in "popcorn workers' lung." In previous in vivo studies rats exposed for 6 hr to vapor from the flavoring agents, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, acquired flavoring concentration-dependent damage of the upper airway epithelium and airway hyporeactivity to inhaled methacholine. Because ion transport is essential for lung fluid balance, we hypothesized that alterations in ion transport may be an early manifestation of butter flavoring-induced toxicity. We developed a system to expose cultured human bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBEs) to flavoring vapors. NHBEs were exposed for 6 hr to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione vapors (25 or >/= 60 ppm) and the effects on short circuit current and transepithelial resistance (Rt) were measured. Immediately after exposure to 25 ppm both flavorings reduced Na+ transport, without affecting Cl- transport or Na+,K+-pump activity. Rt was unaffected. Na+ transport recovered 18 hr after exposure. Concentrations (100-360 ppm) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione reported earlier to give rise in vivo to epithelial damage, and 60 ppm, caused death of NHBEs 0 hr (immediately) post-exposure. Analysis of the basolateral medium indicated that NHBEs metabolize diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione to acetoin and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone, respectively. The results indicate that ion transport is inhibited transiently in airway epithelial cells by lower concentrations of the flavorings than those that result in morphological changes of the cells in vivo or in vitro.

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