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Phenytoin Impurity A

ISO 17034:
Catalog Number : CS-O-31144
CAS Number : 119-61-9
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What is the Chemical Information of Phenytoin Impurity A?

Chemical Name : Phenytoin Impurity A
Category : Impurities
Purity : Not less than 90%
Synonyms : Benzophenone 
Molecular Weight : 182.22 mol/g
Molecular Formula : C₁₃H₁₀O
Application : Impurity in commercial preparations of phenytoin
Therapeutic : Anticonvulsants (Anti-Epileptics)

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Hazardous Compound : No

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Canonical SMILES : C1=CC=C(C=C1)C(=O)C2=CC=CC=C2
Isomeric SMILES : C1=CC=C(C=C1)C(=O)C2=CC=CC=C2
InChI : InChI=1S/C13H10O/c14-13(11-7-3-1-4-8-11)12-9-5-2-6-10-12/h1-10H
IUPAC Name : diphenylmethanone
Exact Mass : 182.073164938
Color : Orthorhombic prisms from alcohol (alpha); monoclinic prisms (beta)
Odor : Geranium-like odor
Melting Point : alpha-118.6° F; beta-79° F; gamma-117° F. (NTP, 1992)
Boiling Point : 582.6 °F at 760 mm Hg (NTP, 1992)
Solubility : Insoluble (<1 mg/ml at 77° F) (NTP, 1992)
Density : 1.085 at 122 °F (USCG, 1999)
Chemical Classes : Other Classes -> Benzophenones
Use Classification : Food additives -> Flavoring Agents
Industry Uses : Odor agents
Consumer Uses : Adhesives and sealants
Hazard Class : STOT RE 2 (39.13%)
Description : Benzophenone is the simplest member of the class of benzophenones, being formaldehyde in which both hydrogens are replaced by phenyl groups. It has a role as a photosensitizing agent and a plant metabolite.
Disposal Methods : SRP: Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in air, soil or water; effects on animal, aquatic and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations. If it is possible or reasonable use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational harm/injury/toxicity or environmental contamination.
EC Number : 204-337-6
Vapor Pressure : 0.00 mmHg
Toxicity Summary : IDENTIFICATION AND USE: Benzophenone (BZP) comes in the form of orthorhombic prisms, monoclinic prisms, and white crystals. It has a characteristic sweet geranium or rose-like odor. BZP is used as a photoinitiator, a fragrance enhancer, an ultraviolet stabilizer, and, occasionally, as a flavor ingredient; it is also used in the manufacture of insecticides, agricultural chemicals, pharmaceuticals (antihistamines), hypnotics, paints, lacquers and cosmetics; and is an additive for plastics, coatings, and adhesives. Not registered for current use as a pesticide in the U.S., but approved pesticide uses may change periodically and so federal, state and local authorities must be consulted for currently approved uses. HUMAN EXPOSURE AND TOXICITY: There is limited information on the toxic effects of BZP in humans published. It showed little activity in the hormone-responsive reporter assay tested in various cell lines. ANIMAL STUDIES: BZP showed no estrogenic activity, however, after irradiating an aqueous solution of BZP with UV or sunlight, it can be converted into ring-hydroxylated derivatives (3-hydroxy BP (BP-3OH) and 4-hydroxyBP (BP-4OH)) that have estrogenic activity. BP-4OH was more potent than BP-3OH for promoting estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated transcription and uterotrophic activity, although both of them showed same affinity in ER binding. The reproductive toxicity of BZP was evaluated in a two generation test in which male and female rats, parental (F0) and first generation (F1), were exposed to BZP by feeding diet containing BZP at concentrations of 0 (control), 100, 450 or 2000 ppm. With regard to the effects of BZP on the F0 and F1 parental animals, inhibition of body weight gain and food consumption, significantly elevated renal weights, dilatation of the renal proximal tubules, and regeneration of the proximal tubular epithelium were recognized at doses of 450 ppm and 2000 ppm, along with an increase in hepatic weight and centrilobular hepatocytic hypertrophy, considered as vital adaptive changes, at the doses of 100 ppm or more. Obvious effects on the endocrine system and reproductive toxicological effects were not found even at the dose of 2000 ppm in the F0 or F1 parent. There were no test substance related changes in the estrous cycle, reproductive capability, delivery and lactation, sperm parameters, serum hormone levels, or necropsy findings. As for effects on the offspring, inhibition of body weight gain was observed in both the F1 and F2 males and females of the 2000 ppm group. No effects of BZP treatment were recognized in the number of male and female F1 or F2 pups delivered, viability, anogenital distance (AGD), physical development, the results of reflex and response tests, or on the observation results of external abnormalities. In carcinogenicity studies, BZP had no effect on survival rates or on incidences of neoplasms or nonneoplastic lesions in lifetime studies in mice (110 weeks) and rabbits (160 weeks) of treatment when administered dermally between the flanks of mice or inside the left ear. In regards to genotoxicity, it was not mutagenic in the standard Ames test using various strains of Salmonella typhimurium, the Escherichia coli pol A assay, in the mouse lymphoma cell mutagenicity test; with or without liver S9 metabolic activation enzymes. BZP and its metabolically related benzhydrol and p-benzoylphenol can be bioactivated by P450 2A6 and P450 family 1 enzymes. ECOTOXICITY STUDIES: The lethal and sublethal effects of six monosubstituted derivatives of benzene were measured by using the 7 day test with fathead minnow larvae. The LC50s for larvae were compared to those derived from the acute test. The larvae were more sensitive than juvenile fish, yet the toxicity order of the six monosubstituted derivatives of benzene was the same for both life stages, that is, butylphenylether > benzophenone > toluene = benzene > nitrobenzene > aniline.
Antidoteand Emergency Treatment : /SRP:/ Immediate first aid: Ensure that adequate decontamination has been carried out. If patient is not breathing, start artificial respiration, preferably with a demand-valve resuscitator, bag-valve-mask device, or pocket mask, as trained. Perform CPR as necessary. Immediately flush contaminated eyes with gently flowing water. Do not induce vomiting. If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain an open airway and prevent aspiration. Keep patient quiet and maintain normal body temperature. Obtain medical attention. /Ketones and related compounds/
Human Toxicity Excerpts : /ALTERNATIVE and IN VITRO TESTS/ Estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities of benzophenone and 16 of its derivatives, which are used as UV stabilizers, were comparatively examined with hormone-responsive reporter assay in various cell lines. Hydroxylated benzophenones exhibited estrogenic activity in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, but their activities varied markedly. The highest activity was observed with 2,4,4'-trihydroxybenzophenone (2.4.4'-triOH-BP), followed by 2,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone, 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone, 4-hydroxybenzophenone and 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone. Benzophenone itself showed little activity in the assay. ... These results suggest that a 4-hydroxyl group on the phenyl ring of benzophenone derivatives is essential for high hormonal activities, and the presence of other hydroxyl groups markedly alters these activities.

What are the Impurities of Phenytoin ?

CS-ER-01660 Phenytoin Related Compound A(Secondary Standards traceble to USP) 3060-50-2 Phenytoin Secondary Standards
CS-T-52245 rac N-Desmethyl Mephenytoin 631-07-2 Phenytoin Impurities
CS-T-57498 rac Mephenytoin D5 1185032-66-9 Phenytoin Stable Isotopes
CS-O-02749 Phenytoin D10 65854-97-9 Phenytoin Stable Isotopes
CS-EB-02827 Phenytoin (1535008) 57-41-0 Phenytoin USP Standards
CS-T-31814 (S)-Mephenytoin 70989-04-7 Phenytoin API Standards
CS-EB-01669 Phenytoin Related Compound B (G1J173) 6802-95-5 Phenytoin USP Standards
CS-W-00413 Mephenytoin-D8 Phenytoin Stable Isotopes
CS-T-56127 (+/-)-4-Hydroxy Mephenytoin 61837-65-8 Phenytoin Impurities
CS-O-02068 Phenytoin Sodium 630-93-3 Phenytoin API Standards
CS-T-57497 rac Mephenytoin D3 1185101-86-3 Phenytoin Stable Isotopes
CS-O-39145 N-nitroso Mephenytoin NA Phenytoin Impurities
CS-T-56128 (+/-)-4-Hydroxy Mephenytoin-d3 1173022-56-4 Phenytoin Stable Isotopes
CS-O-02145 Phenytoin 57-41-0 Phenytoin API Standards
CS-T-24814 Fosphenytoin Sodium 92134-98-0 Phenytoin Intermediates
CS-T-34275 (R)-1-Methylmephenytoin 201606-44-2 Phenytoin Intermediates
CS-T-31813 (R)-Mephenytoin 71140-51-7 Phenytoin API Standards
CS-T-27668 (S)-4-Hydroxy Mephenytoin 82695-93-0 Phenytoin Impurities
CS-O-31145 Phenytoin Sodium EP Impurity B 134-81-6 Phenytoin Impurities
CS-T-52247 R-(-)-N-Desmethyl Mephenytoin 65567-32-0 Phenytoin Impurities
CS-O-43231 Fosphenytoin Cyclohexyl impurity NA Phenytoin Impurities
CS-ED-01004 4-Hydroxyphenytoin glucuronide 53819-79-7 Phenytoin Glucuronides
CS-T-52246 Rac N- Desmethyl Mephenytoin- D5(Major) 119458-27-4 Phenytoin Stable Isotopes
CS-ED-02004 Fosphenytoin 93390-81-9 Phenytoin API Standards
CS-T-53819 Phenytoin Related Compound A 3060-50-2 Phenytoin Impurities
CS-EK-01429 Mephenytoin 50-12-4 Phenytoin API Standards
CS-ER-01661 Phenytoin Related Compound B(Secondary Standards traceble to USP) 6802-95-5 Phenytoin Secondary Standards
CS-T-28236 3-Hydroxy Phenytoin 30074-03-4 Phenytoin Metabolites
CS-EB-02798 Fosphenytoin sodium (1286366) 92134-98-0 Phenytoin USP Standards